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MD ID
453
PAS ID
Artefact Type
COIN
Period
POST MEDIEVAL
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
A jar of old copper coins
The history of the penny of Great Britain and the United Kingdom from 1714 to 1901, the period in which the House of Hanover reigned, saw the transformation of the penny from a little-used small silver coin to the bronze piece recognisable to modern-day Britons. All bear the portrait of the monarch on the obverse; copper and bronze pennies have a depiction of Britannia, the female personification of Britain, on the reverse.

During most of the 18th century, the penny was a small silver coin rarely seen in circulation, and that was principally struck to be used for Maundy money or other royal charity. Beginning in 1787, the chronic shortage of good money resulted in the wide circulation of private tokens, including large coppers valued at one penny. In 1797 industrialist Matthew Boulton gained a contract to produce official pennies at his Soho Mint in Birmingham; he struck millions of pennies over the next decade. After that, it was not until 1825 that pennies were struck again for circulation, and the copper penny continued to be issued until 1860.

By the late 1850s, the state of the copper coinage was deemed unsatisfactory, with quantities of worn oversized pieces, some dating from Boulton's day, still circulating. They were replaced by lighter bronze coins beginning in 1860; the "Bun penny", named for the hairstyle of Queen Victoria on it, was issued from then until 1894. The final years of Victoria's reign saw the "Veiled head" or "Old head" pennies, which were coined from 1895 until her death in 1901
Discovered
2018
Added
29/03/2019
Updated
29/03/2019
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MD ID
452
PAS ID
Artefact Type
BUTTON
Period
POST MEDIEVAL
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
A jar of various buttons.
5,000 years ago, ornamental buttons were made from shell. One found in Pakistan is currently considered to be the oldest button in existence. Other early buttons were made out of materials including bone, horn, bronze and wood.
Later, buttons took on more practical duties. In ancient Rome buttons were used to secure clothes, some having to support reams of fabric at a single point. It wasn’t until the 13th century that proper buttonholes were being sewn into clothes, and with them, new possibilities for clothing arose.
Discovered
2018
Added
29/03/2019
Updated
29/03/2019
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MD ID
451
PAS ID
Artefact Type
BUCKLE
Period
POST MEDIEVAL
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
A Jar of Buckles from belts, shoes and horses.
The buckle or clasp is a device used for fastening two loose ends, with one end attached to it and the other held by a catch in a secure but adjustable manner. Often taken for granted, the invention of the buckle has been indispensable in securing two ends before the invention of the zipper. The basic buckle frame comes in a variety of shapes and sizes depending on the intended use and fashion of the era. Buckles are as much in use today as they have been in the past. Used for much more than just securing one’s belt, instead it is one of the most dependable devices in securing a range of items.
The word "buckle" enters Middle English via Old French and the Latin buccula or "cheek-strap," as for a helmet. Some of the earliest buckles known are those used by Roman soldiers to strap their body armor together and prominently on the balteus and cingulum. Made out of bronze and expensive, these buckles were purely functional for their strength and durability vital to the individual soldier. The baldric was a later belt worn diagonally over the right shoulder down to the waist at the left carrying the sword, and its buckle therefore was as important as that on a Roman soldier’s armor.
Discovered
2018
Added
29/03/2019
Updated
29/03/2019
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MD ID
450
PAS ID
Artefact Type
MUSKET BALL
Period
POST MEDIEVAL
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
A jar of various sized musket balls.
Musket balls are the types of projectiles that are fired from muskets. Before they were loaded down the muzzle, they were usually wrapped in paper or cloth, to keep excess gas behind the barrel. They were usually made of lead. Musket balls were made by pouring molten lead into a musket ball mould and trimming off surplus lead once it had cooled. At times stone musket balls were used. The lead musket balls expanded upon entering a body, often causing a large exit wound. If the musket ball was not wrapped in the linen patch, it could bounce from side to side inside the musket barrel and would leave the barrel in an unpredictable direction. This is one of the reasons why muskets were inaccurate. Musket balls where generally anywhere from .30-.75 calibre, but some exceeded these guidelines. The musket ball was loaded into the smooth bore by first pouring a powder charge down the barrel, wrapping a linen patch around the ball, starting it off with a short ramrod or 'starter' then using the longer ramrod (usually seated underneath the barrel) to push it all the way down the barrel. After tapping the ball a few times to check that it was seated firmly on top of the powder charge the ramrod was withdrawn. Musket balls could also be used in rifled muskets - guns that were originally smooth-bored but rifled at a later date - or in rifles. Musket balls are often confused with balls for muzzle-loading pistols, as some pistols were of a larger bore than some muskets.
Discovered
2018
Added
29/03/2019
Updated
29/03/2019
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MD ID
449
PAS ID
DEV-01DDC5
Artefact Type
BRONZE AXE
Period
BRONZE AGE C2,750 BC - 750 BC
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
A copper alloy Middle Bronze Age palstave of South Western type dating to the Taunton/Penard phase (c. 1400 - 1100 BC). The butt is slightly worn or damaged, resulting in one angled corner which meets the main butt end at a 45 degree angle.
Discovered
2018
Added
29/03/2019
Updated
29/03/2019
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MD ID
447
PAS ID
Artefact Type
COIN
Period
ELIZABETHAN 1558 - 1603
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
Lascaris Castellar countermarked hammered coin c1500.

The Countermarked Copper Coinage of the Knights of Malta
By Donald S. Yarab
The Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem was given sovereign possession of the island of Malta in 1530 by the Emperor Charles V. The 0rder resided on the. Island until 1798 when it was. forcibly expelled from Malta by the aggressions of the French under Napoleon. One of the more interesting numismatic legacies arising from the Order's tenure on Malta was the issuance of a copper coinage prescribed with 1, 2, and 4 Tari denominations (denominations traditionally associated with the Order’s silver coinage) and the subsequent countermarking of this copper coinage by the Order to attest to its authenticity.
THE GREAT SIEGE OF MALTA IN 1565 AND THE NECESSITY OF COPPER COINAGE
Grand Master John de la Vallette (1557-68) opened his reign with the Knowledge that the Ottoman Sultan Sulieman was preparing to attack Malta with great force. Vallete therefore issued a call to arms to which over 9,000 men responded. He also devoted the resources of the Order to the construction and reinforcement of defensive fortifications in preparation for the coming onslaught.
In 1565, an Ottoman fleet carrying over 35,000 men descended on Malta and commenced a siege which lasted a staggering 113 days. The religious zeal which animated both the Christian and Mohammedan forces gave rise to an Homeric epic. The struggle for Malta, which saw the birth of many extraordinary acts of heroism and valour, was costly. By the time the siege was lifted this astonishingly brutal engagement had claimed over 30,000 Mohammedan and 8,400 Christian lives.
Grand Master Vallette, who survived the siege, immediately began the costly task of reconstructing the Maltese defences. By March of 1566, the Grand Master had placed the cornerstone of the new city of Vallette. This city, erected on the entire area of Mount Sceberras, was designed to provide an impenetrable defence in the event of further Ottoman aggression.
It is small wonder, then, that by 1566 the treasury of the Order was depleted and a general scarcity of silver prevailed on Malta. In order to meet the monetary needs of the Maltese, the Order began minting 1, 2 and 4 Tari coins in copper. Prior to 1566, these denominations were struck in silver.
The new copper coins featured the arms of the Grand Master on the obverse and two clasped hands on the reverse. The reverse Latin inscription read NON AES SED FIDES (Not copper but Faith). Though the intrinsic worth of the copper coins did not even remotely approach the stated value of the coins, the Maltese accepted the coins with, no doubt, the same Faith which enabled them to endure the Great Siege of 1565.

THE PREVALENCE OF COUNTERFEIT COPPER COINS AND THE NECESSITY COUNTERMARKING

The, continuing financial exhaustion of the Order necessitated the issuance of similar copper coinage by later Grand Masters. Such coins were by Grand Masters Peter del Monte (1568-72), Hugh de Loubenx Verdala (1582-95), and Jean Paul Lascaris Castellar (1636-57). Collectors are most apt to encounter the issues of Grand Master Lascaris. Issues of the other Grand Masters are relatively scarce.
Unfortunately the low intrinsic worth and high denominated value of these copper coins, especially the 2 and 4 Tari pieces, soon made these coins a popular object of the counterfeiter's art. Indeed, by 1646 the problem of counterfeit 2 and 4 tars coins became so pervasive that Grand Master Lascaris issued an edict which provided that "it is expedient that all copper coins current in this Island of Malta be restamped in the hope of avoiding frauds which are likely to occur.” Under this and subsequent edicts all copper coins were to be taken to the mint for examination. Coins found to be genuine were countermarked as an indication of their authenticity. In practice, only 2 and 4 Tari pieces were countermarked although an occasional 1 Tari coin was countermarked.
In spite of the countermarking of these. copper coins by Lascaris and the imposition of heavy fines and penalties on counterfeiters, counterfeit 2 and 4 tars coins continued to plague Malta. Thus, many of Lascaris' successors also found it expedient to countermark the copper 2 and 4 Tari coins. In all, six different Grandmasters found it necessary to guarantee the authenticity of the circulating copper coinage by applying various counter-. Two of the Grand Masters found it necessary to countermarks the coinage twice during their reigns.
The countermarks used by the various Grand Masters were symbolic of the arms of the Grand Master or, on occasion, were, some other appropriate religious emblem. These countermarks have been found on 1, 2 and 4 Tari copper coins with the 4 Tari pieces being the most frequently countermarked and the 1 Tari coins being the least frequently countermarked.
In most instances, the countermarks of several Grand Masters appear on a coin. Generally, the 2 and 4 Tari coins appear with between three and five different countermarks. Occasionally, a 2 or 4 Tari coin is found with as many as six different countermarks. Finally, it appears that the most uncommon 2 and 4 Tari coins are those with all the possible countermarks and time with none of the countermarks.
Countermarked 1 Tari coins are seen with such infrequency as to make any generalizations about them prone to significant error.
The British, who acquired Malta after the defeat of Napoleon, allowed the copper coinage of the Order to continue in circulation until 1827 when the British ordered it's withdrawal. This retirement from use was well earned for much of the Maltese copper coinage had been in active circulation for well over 250 years as attested to by the various countermarks placed on them over the years
.
The following countermarks were employed by the Order to validate its copper coinage.
1. Double-headed eagle within a circular impression (approximate dia. 6-7 mm). Countermark of Jean Paul Lascaris Castellar, 1636-57. Countermark -authorized by decrees of 17th May, 1646 and 28th May, 1646.

2. Double-headed eagle within a shield impression (5 mm x,6.5 mm). Countermark of Jean Paul Lucaaris Castellar, 1636-57. Countermark authorized by decrees of 17th May, 1646 and 28th May, 1646
Note: It appears that the above two countermarks (#1 and #2) are merely distinctive varieties of the countermarking authorised in 1646. Also, the countermark within the shield impression (# 2) seems to be the more uncommon of the two varieties

3. Head of St. John the Baptist within an oval impression (app. 4.5 mm x 7 mm) Countermark of Raphael Cotoner, 1660 -63 Countermark authorized by decree of 19th April, 1662

4. Crowned fleur-de-lys within an irregular impression (app, 4.5 mm x 7.5 mm). Countermark of Adrien Wignacourt, 1690-97. Countermark authorized bar decree of 27th August, 1696.

5. Crowned star within an irregular impression (app. 10 mm x 7 mm). Countermark of Raymond Despuig. 1736-41. Countermark authorized decree of 13th December,1740.
Note: The above countermark (#5) is reported to be the most uncommon of all the countermarks This is attributed to the close of Despuig's reign within months of the authorization of his reign's countermarking.

6. Crowned crescent within an irregular impression (app. 6 mm x 10 mm). Countermark of Emmanuel Pinto, 1741 - 73. Countermark authorized by decree of 31st January, 1741.

7. MA monogram within an irregular impression (app. 6.5 mm x 7 mm). Countermark Emmanuel Pinto 1741-73.Countermark authorized by decree 30th May. 1766.

8. Crowned diamond within an irregular impression (app. 5 mm x 7 mm). Countermark of Emmanuel de Rohan 1775-97, Countermark authorized by decree of 19th June, 1777 and 10th January, 1778.

9. Paschal lamb with banner of the Order within an octangular impression (app. 6 mm x 6.75 mm). Countermark of Emmanuel de Rohan 1775-97..Countermark authorized by decree '17th July, 1792 and 29th October, 1792.
Note: Schembri Pridmore and other early sources erroneously attributed the above countermark (#9) to the reign of Grand Master Raymond Perellos (1697 - 1720) The scholarship of Sammut has definitively attributed this countermark to Rohan's reign.
Discovered
2019
Added
26/03/2019
Updated
02/04/2019
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MD ID
446
PAS ID
Artefact Type
BELL
Period
VICTORIAN 1837 - 1901
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
Probably Victorian servants bell, the clanger is missing and would have been mounted on a coiled spring connected by cord to a room in a property.

Sprung bells
No object is more evocative of historic household communication than the sprung bell. This device, worked by a complex system of wires, allowed for a member of the household to pull a lever, thereby ringing a bell located in the service areas. The bells were typically mounted in stairwells, outside servants' quarters and in some instances, inside servants’ rooms.

Each bell hung from a coiled spring so that a pendulum – also suspended from the spring – would continue to move even after the bell had stopped ringing. This way, servants had time to move from the service areas to the bell system to see where they were required.
Discovered
2019
Added
24/03/2019
Updated
24/03/2019
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MD ID
444
PAS ID
Artefact Type
MOUNT
Period
POST MEDIEVAL
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
Copper alloy tudor rose mount. Circa 1500-1700 AD
Discovered
2019
Added
23/03/2019
Updated
23/03/2019
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MD ID
442
PAS ID
Artefact Type
RING
Period
GEORGIAN 1714 - 1837
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
A Gold posy ring, the inscription inside the ring reads "I will always be constant to thee" and dates from around the c1700-1800.

Posy rings derive their name from the word “posy” or “poesy” – a derivative of poetry meaning short rhyme. The rings were popular from the late medieval period onwards and were primarily used to communicate secret messages of love between the giver and the recipient.

Weight: 7g of 22 carat gold.
Gold Smith: Emick Romer 1759-1773
Discovered
2019
Added
23/03/2019
Updated
11/04/2019
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MD ID
441
PAS ID
Artefact Type
HARNESS PENDANT
Period
MEDIEVAL 500 - 1500 AD
MD Finds Event
No
County
Somerset
Description
An complete copper-alloy harness pendant of Medieval date, c.AD 1200-1400. The pendant is octofoil in shape, with eight round lobes projecting from a circular centre. Each lobe and the spaces between the lobes are filled with traces of gilding.
Discovered
2019
Added
22/03/2019
Updated
22/03/2019
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MD ID
440
PAS ID
Artefact Type
COIN
Period
GEORGIAN 1714 - 1837
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
George II 1745 halfpenny.
Discovered
2019
Added
22/03/2019
Updated
22/03/2019
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MD ID
438
PAS ID
Artefact Type
COIN
Period
ROMAN 43 AD - 410 BC
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
Bronze Radiate Tetricus I Separatist Emperor of the Gallic Empire, 270-273 AD very worn.
Discovered
2019
Added
22/03/2019
Updated
22/03/2019
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MD ID
437
PAS ID
Artefact Type
PENDANT
Period
MODERN
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
1907 Sandown Racecourse Members medallion.
Discovered
2019
Added
20/03/2019
Updated
20/03/2019
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MD ID
436
PAS ID
Artefact Type
THIMBLE
Period
VICTORIAN 1837 - 1901
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
Four Victorian Silver Thimbles - A thimble is a small hard pitted cup worn for protection on the finger that pushes the needle in sewing. Usually, thimbles with a closed top are used by dressmakers but special thimbles with an opening at the end are used by tailors as this allows them to manipulate the cloth more easily.
Discovered
2018
Added
20/03/2019
Updated
20/03/2019
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MD ID
435
PAS ID
Artefact Type
BAYONET
Period
MODERN
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
A spike bayonet, also known as a pigsticker in informal contexts, is a blade attachment for a firearm taking the form of a pointed spike rather than a knife.
Discovered
2015
Added
20/03/2019
Updated
20/03/2019
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MD ID
434
PAS ID
Artefact Type
PENDANT
Period
MEDIEVAL 500 - 1500 AD
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
A complete medieval copper alloy armorial cross.

To be conformed
Discovered
2012
Added
20/03/2019
Updated
20/03/2019
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MD ID
433
PAS ID
Artefact Type
THIMBLE
Period
VICTORIAN 1837 - 1901
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
Small childs silver thimble.
Height: 15mm
Dia: 10mm
Discovered
2012
Added
20/03/2019
Updated
20/03/2019
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MD ID
432
PAS ID
Artefact Type
THIMBLE
Period
MEDIEVAL 500 - 1500 AD
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
Cut down beehive thimble to make into a ring, this was done when thimbles became worn and were no more use for sewing.
Discovered
2015
Added
20/03/2019
Updated
20/03/2019
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MD ID
431
PAS ID
Artefact Type
MODERN
Period
MODERN
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
A selection of spent cartridges and spent rounds of various caliber.
Discovered
2014
Added
20/03/2019
Updated
20/03/2019
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MD ID
430
PAS ID
Artefact Type
CROSS
Period
STUART 1603 - 1714
MD Finds Event
No
County
Devon
Description
Lead mortuary cross from monastic victim of the plague, English, 1601-1700
Discovered
2018
Added
20/03/2019
Updated
20/03/2019
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Records 21 to 40 of 432

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